Deep Dives Level Up Newsletters Saved Articles Challenges

Never seen before photographic evidence of the horrifying 1937 Nanjing massacre just discovered

Evan Kail, the owner of St. Louis Park Gold & Silver, a Minnesota precious-metal dealership, receives packages everyday. Most of them contain assorted coins, jewellery and other miscellaneous items—products to be expected in a pawn shop. On 29 August 2022, however, Kail received a once-lost historic artefact that has uncovered war crimes once believed to be non-existent.

According to The New Yorker, the 33-year-old man was searching through a box of items when he came across an album of wartime photographs. The album was leather-bound and featured two distinctive dragons on the front. The pictures inside appear to have been assembled by an American Navy sailor who had wanted to capture his tour of the western Pacific in the 1930s.

Kail decided to document his findings on his TikTok account @pawn.man, and viewers very quickly became horrified at the contents of the photo album. The video, which has now amassed over 30 million views, depicts the pawnshop owner flicking through the album and revealing the disturbing nature of the images inside.

The man explained how, at the beginning of the album, the US sailor has documented some incredibly vivid moments of life in the 1930s in South East Asia. However, the images quickly become something far more sinister. As the book starts to shift and display more war-related content, Kail turned the camera to his face and stated, “I can’t show you past this page.”

@pawn.man

PLEASE HELP ME #nankingmassacre #historicalphotos #worldwar2 #pawnman #museumtreasure

♬ original sound - Pawn Master Kail

But it wasn’t long before the pages he referred to were posted on Twitter and the images inside depict what can only be described as “human carnage.” The photographs—which have since been taken down—capture the remains of bomb victims, a decapitated man, a charred and discarded cadaver and many more scenes of horror and massacre spill off of the pages—creating a far too realistic depiction of the suffering that took place. Graphic images of a Lingchi public execution—known by westerners as “death by a thousand cuts”—are even featured in the same.

But it wasn’t long before the pages he referred to were posted on Twitter and the images inside depict what can only be described as “human carnage.” The photographs—which have since been taken down—capture the remains of bomb victims, a decapitated man, a charred and discarded cadaver and many more scenes of horror and massacre spill off of the pages—creating a far too realistic depiction of the suffering that took place. Graphic images of a Lingchi public execution—known by westerners as “death by a thousand cuts”—are even featured in the same.

Locating the site of this destruction is also made possible by road signs displayed in many of the photographs. “Nanking road” can be spotted in the background, allowing us to accurately identify the site of these extreme atrocities of war.

For those of you who may be unaware, Nanking—now known as Nanjing—was the setting of a wide-scale massacre in 1937. Although often dismissed or downplayed by public officials, the ‘Rape of Nanking’ is a dark spot in history that should not be belittled or forgotten. The Chinese city was infiltrated by Japanese troops in December 1937 and, over a span of six weeks, bands of soldiers slaughtered, raped, pillaged and tormented its inhabitants.

It has been estimated that at least 20,000 women were raped with many of these victims brutally mutilated after their ‘purpose’ had been fulfilled. Bodies were discarded in bulk alongside rivers and the soldiers’ methods of execution grew deadlier each day, from hacking victims to death to covering them in petrol and burning them alive.

The Japanese government has consistently denied that the massacre ever took place. In 2000, The Guardian reported public outrage in response to a controversial conference held in Osaka, Japan titled The Verification of the Rape of Nanking: The Biggest Lie of the 20th Century.

While survivors of the massacre had gathered outside the conference, one victim, Liu Xiuling, stated, “They say I’m lying, I say I best represent the massacre victims because I still have wounds on my body, wounds on my face, wounds on my legs. Can you deny that?”

Since his discovery of the photo album, Kail has posted an update to his TikTok account explaining how he intends to locate a museum in China so as to ensure the book’s preservation and hopefully provide some concrete proof of this traumatic moment in history.

@pawn.man

Update on my World War 2 photo book #worldwar2 #historytok #empireofjapan #pawnman

♬ original sound - Pawn Master Kail

It should be noted that, since Kail came forward with his findings, a number of prominent historians have questioned the validity of the images. The photographs, after having been posted on Twitter, were quickly queried by historian Jo Hedwig Teeuwisse, as reported by NBC News.

Teeuwisse, who has also acted as a historic consultant on a number of TV shows and movies, cautioned that while the album genuinely did appear to be from the 1930s, the included photos were potentially printed and widely distributed, which the soldier was likely to have bought and added to the album—thereby challenging the authenticity of the images and their place in the Nanking timeline.

Despite these possibilities, educating individuals about this historic event and recognising the atrocities that were committed is without a doubt a step in the right direction.

Following the Tigray genocide, here’s how the African youth is redefining politics on TikTok

TikTok has taken the world by storm, garnering the attention of millions of people—there’s no denying it. Launched and currently owned by Beijing-based ByteDance, its popularity really took off at the advent of the COVID-19 outbreak. Although it started out as a lip-synching app previously known as  Musical.ly, TikTok has since proven to be an online hub where communities come together and where users (mostly gen Zers) feel free to explore their identities publicly.

TikTok as a platform for politics in Africa

Having this type of influence on such a big audience has, in turn, made TikTok a platform where both political discourse and political mobilisation take place—most definitely against the wishes of the app’s founders. A 2018 study conducted by Daniel Lane and Sonya Dal Cin found public sharing of prosocial behaviour—that is, behaviour that benefits people or society as a whole—leads to more participation in activism in both online and offline worlds. The study also found that young people on TikTok who come across political content are more likely to engage in future acts of activism, both online and offline, therefore contesting the negative views of “slacktivism.”

Although political content shared on TikTok is often based on specifically American geopolitics, and occasionally British politics, the app’s political sphere also offers a chance for viewers to be educated on and be a part of the political scene outside of the Western media bubble we have become accustomed to. TikTok, over the last year, has also become a valuable tool to some African countries despite the digital divide. The video-sharing app has millions of Africa-based users alone, which makes a lot of sense as the country currently houses the world’s youngest population with a median age of 19—making TikTok the perfect place for the youth to mobilise and share political information.

TikTok’s increased accessibility is also credited to network providers seeing its potential as a means to generate profit and, thereby, implementing various data bundles dedicated to social media platforms like the app. While TikTok has had its fair share of controversies, it has become the perfect place for people to mobilise and share political ideals due to its easy-on-the-eye visual elements—with the information being released into digestible, bite-sized chunks. TikTok is to African countries what Facebook was to the Arab Spring: ready and full of potential to change the political landscape of an entire region.

Ethiopia’s path to TikTok

Over the last two years, Ethiopia has found itself amid an escalating conflict in which forces from the northern Tigray region are clashing with the national military. The year-long crisis has led to the deaths of hundreds of people and displacement of thousands—a crisis people have dubbed the “Tigray genocide.” In this case, social media seemed only to worsen the climate.

Disinformation and misinformation played a role in escalating the conflict through fake news posts and articles pitting the sides against each other. The main culprits in spreading such falsities to propagate were, of course, Twitter and Facebook; and as a result, Twitter found itself at the centre of public distrust, thanks to reports by the Mozilla Foundation which found coordinated disinformation campaigns on the platform intended to sway public opinion.

On 6 November, Twitter announced it had suspended trends in Ethiopia, “We’re monitoring the situation in Ethiopia and are focused on protecting the safety of the conversation on Twitter.” the social media service wrote. “Inciting violence or dehumanizing people is against our rules,” it continued. Facebook followed in a similar trajectory soon enough. But the failures of these platforms only left space open for another to take their place—TikTok, obviously.

The platform became the perfect place for political discourse in Africa to come about, largely because of its supposed neutrality as well as its relative newness which essentially meant it wasn’t regarded as a threat. The app became the least moderated space to spread the word about the genocide and encourage people to help. Over the last year, TikTok has made its mark in Africa by giving many people from marginalised communities a voice with supporters from every part of the world to match. The efforts of bringing awareness to the Tigray genocide came from the Tigray diaspora sharing their story to the app, as well as larger creators learning to dedicate their presence on the platform to a cause larger than themselves. In short, TikTok has played a large role in bringing visibility to the Tigray people.

@unitedtegaru

⚠️TW: violence & SA ⚠️ Please b00st this video! #fyp #foryou #foryoupage #tigray #abcxyz #allowaccesstotigray #awareness #tigraygenocide #help

♬ Blade Runner 2049 - Synthwave Goose
@unitedtegaru

b00st this video, Tigray needs #help ! #fyp #foryou #foryoupage #tigray #xyzbca #abcxyz #awareness #tigraygenocide #TikTokGGT

♬ Cinematic Piano (Dramatic Piano) - Film Music Experience
https://www.tiktok.com/@pariahnation/video/6941484416627657990

TikTok and the rest of Africa

As TikTok has helped (and continues to) highlight crises across Africa, authoritarian governments are beginning to take notice of its social and political influence on the general population, which mostly consists of young people. Governments have begun cracking down on TikTok activists as a way to dissuade others from following suit.

@nowthis

Women are being arrested in Egypt for posting on TikTok. #egypt #بعد_اذن_الاسرة_المصرية

♬ WHEN NOTHING IS RIGHT - KID CANNIBAL

The Egyptian government was the first to exhibit TikTok crackdowns. In early 2020, several young Egyptian women with significant followings were arrested on charges relating to ‘indecent content’, the corruption of family values, and the misuse of social media. Two of them, Haneen Hossam (1.3 million followers) and Mawada Eladhm (3.1 million followers) also faced accusations of managing private internet accounts to commit this offence. They were fined almost $20,000 and sentenced to two years in prison respectively. An Egyptian appeals court overturned the prison sentences just last month.

While authoritarian governments may try everything in their power to restrict their citizens’ access to the internet and platforms such as TikTok, the very nature of the giant app has come to show that the collective essence of such social media platforms do lend a hand in advocacy and allyship to friends in all corners of the world—with a simple 30-second video.